Definition of Time in Aagam (As per Jain Philosophy)
Author Name – Bindu Jain Bothra
Categories – Jain Philosophy
When ‘Time’ substance is added to the concept of Panchastikaya, then 6 these six together are collectively called as Saddravya. Time is an important factor in the context of the universe.
The final ajiva or non- living entity to be considered is Kaal. It assists in bringing about the changes take place in the universe. It is eternal, formless and infinite. Kaal is to be inferred from duration, transformation of things into various modes, action, movement, priority and posteriority.
2.1 – Definition & Characteristics of Time (Kaal)
कलणं पज्जायाणं कलिज्जए तेण वा जओ वत्थुं। कलयंति तयं तम्मि व समयाएकलासमूहो वा॥ (विभा. 2028)
kaalnam pajjaayaanam kalijje ten va jau vatthum. kaalyanti tayam tammi va samayaatkaalamoolo va. (Vibha. 2028)
जिससे वस्तु के पर्याय का कलन/ ज्ञान किया जाता है, वह काल है अथवा समय आदि कलाओं के समुह को काल कहते है।
Due to which the synonym/knowledge of the object is done, it is Kaal or time group of arts etc. is called Kaal.
सूक्ष्मामपि कलां कलयति इति काल:। सकलयति भूतानि वा काल:। (उ. चू. पृ. 29)
sookshmamapi kaalam kaalyati iti kaalah. sakalyati bhootani va kaalah.
जो सूक्ष्म विभाग का भी आकलन करता है, वह काल है। अथवा जो प्राणियों के आयुष्य को पुर्ण करता है, वह काल है।
One who also assesses the micro-department is Kaal. Or the one who fulfills the age of the living beings that is Kaal.
वत्तणालक्खणो कालो ॥ (उ सूत्र- 28।10)
वर्त्तन्ते-भवन्ति भावास्तेन तेन रूपेण तान् प्रति प्रयोजकत्वं वर्त्तना सा लक्षणं-लिङ्गम्स्येति वर्त्तनालक्षण: काल:। (उ. शा. वृ. प, – 561)
varttante-bhavantee bhavavaastan ten roopen tang prati prayojakatvatvan varttana sa lakshanan-li linggamsyeti varttalakshanah kaalah.
काल का लक्षण है – वर्तना। पदार्थ अपने अपने रूप में रहते हैं, उनके प्रति जो प्रयोजक तत्त्व है वह है वर्तना।
The characteristic of Kaal is – Vartna. Substances remain in their own form, which is the sponsoring element towards them.
जीवाजीवपज्जायत्तणतो कालस्स णियमा आहेय- त्तणतो य अंते अद्धासमय:। (अनु. चू. पृ. 30)
jeevaajeevapajjaayutanato kaalass niyama aahey- tatanato ya ante asatasamaah.
काल जीव और अजीव का पर्याय है। यह आधार नहीं, आधेय है- जीव अजीव के आश्रित है, अत: 6 द्रव्यों में यह अद्धा समय-काल अंतिम द्रव्य है।
Kaal is the mode of changes in living and non-living beings. It is not a base, it’s an Adheya. Jiva is dependent on Ajiva, therefore Addhasamaya in 6 Dravyas is the last substance of Kaal.
वर्तना परिणाम: क्रिया परत्वापरत्वे च कालस्य॥5-22॥
Vartanaa Parinaamah Kriyaa Paratvaaparatve Cha Kaalasya||5-22||
Sutra 22 specifies becoming, changing, moving and concepts of before and after as the functions of time. Becoming, changing and moving are actually the activities of jeev and pudgal, but the time when such situations occur is of significance. Time is thus a vital factor for any activity. Similarly the concepts, ‘before and after’ would not arises in absence of time. Time being instrumental in those activities, they are termed here as the functions or Upakars of Time.
कालक्ष्चेत्येके ॥5-38॥ Kaalashchetyeke॥5-38॥
सोSनन्तसमय: ॥5-39॥ So’nantasamayah॥5-39॥
Some say that time is a substance and it is imbibed with infinite Samayas.
Attributing the belief of time as a substance among some people implies that all of them do not admit it. In general, Digambars consider it as a separate substance. Therefore their version of this sutra is ‘Kaalscha’, which means that time also is a substance. Shwetambars do not treat it as an independent substance. The substantiality is attributed to it, become it provides the time frame to the activities of Jeev and Pudgal. Both the sects, however, agree that the time is divided into endless number of Samay, which is an infinitesimal part of a second. That has been made explicit in sutra 39.
Jain Siddhant Deepika
कालश्च। Kaals ca.
जीवाजीवपर्यायत्वादौपचारिकं द्रव्यमसावित्यस्य पृथग्ग्रहणम्। क्षणवर्तित्वान्न चास्तिकाय:।
Jivajivaparyayatvad aupacarikam dravyam asav ity asya prithag grahanam. Ksanavartitvam na castikayah.
(Aph) Kaal (time) is also dravy.
(Gloss) the kaal (time) is a substance only metaphorically, being a mode of the (substance falling under the categories of) soul and non-soul, and as such it has been counted separately, being only momentary in nature, it is not an astikaya, that is, a conglomeration pf parts. 
वर्तमानत्वम्– वर्तना। पदार्थानां नानापर्यायेषु परिणति: – परिणाम:। क्रिया – चंक्रमणादि:। प्राग्भावित्वम् – परत्वम्। पश्चाद्भावित्वम्–अपरत्वम्।
Vartamanatvam-vartana. Padarthanam nanaparyayesu parinatih- parinamah. Kriyaa-chankramanadih pragbhavitam-paratvam. Pashchadbhavitvam-apartvam.
It (viz, time) is to be inferred from duration, change, action, priority and posteriority.
(Gloss) Duration means existence, change means transformation of things into various modes, Action means movement, and the like, priority means antecedence. Posteriority means succuession. 
 The Basics of Jainism By Mukhya Niyojika Sadhvi Vishurt Vibha, Pg- 123
 Visheshavshyak Bhashy 2028, Shree Bhikshu Aagam Vishay Kosh – 1, Pg- 203
 Uttaradhyayan Churni Pg- 29
 Uttaradhyayan Sutra- 28।10
 Uttaradhyayan Shantyacharya ki Brihad Vriti Patra – 561
 Anuyogdvar Churni Pg- 30
 Tattvartha Sutra – Translation with Commentary by Manu Doshi, pg- 89
 Tattvartha Sutra – Translation with Commentary by Manu Doshi, pg- 98
 Illuminator of Jaina Tenets By –By Prof. Satkari Mukherjee, English Rendering of Jaina-Siddhant Deepika By Ganandhipati Tulsi, Sutra- 2
 Illuminator of Jaina Tenets By –By Prof. Satkari Mukherjee, English Rendering of Jaina-Siddhant Deepika By Ganandhipati Tulsi, of Jaina Tenets By – By Ganadhipati Tulsi, Sutra- 20
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